MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.I - The essential task of mankind
is to commit his talent to provide his fellow men with new knowledge.
The benefit of the Monarchy for society is not among known themes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.II - Three questions on temporal Monarchy
(or Empire): 1: is it necessary for the world's well-being? 2: Did
the Roman people rule with right? 3: Does its authority come from
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.III - The final task of the human race
is to always and fully realise all its intelectural potential, both
in speculation and enactment, modifying reality.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.IV - A condition necessary for the
human race to realise its intellectual potential is to live in peace
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.V - Is the Monarchy necessary for
the well-being of the world? An analysis of ever growing social nucei
shows the opportuneness of the world governed by a single Monarch
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VI - The order of a complex system
is worth more than the order of its parts; this means that if one
nation benefits from the guidance of a Monarch, then a set of nations
will do so more.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VII - As the human race is made up
of nations, it is part of the Universe, that obeys God, its only Monarch;
this confirms that Monarchy is necessary for the world's well-being.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VIII - God wanted man to be in His
image; since one of the characteristics of God is Unity, then the
human race should be subject to a single Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.IX - Mankind is the son of Heaven,
whose parts are moved by a single force, the Primum Mobile; thus is
it natural that the human race be governed by a single Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.X - The human race should be governed
by one Prince; only under this condition can justice be assured for
any controversy between men, at any level.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XI - Only one Monarch, the same for
all men, can completely exercise justice; free from envy, he desires
justice and has the power to impose it on all other princes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XII - Freedom, as it is God's greatest
gift, must be defended. Only the Monarch of the world, who is not
envious, desires to maintain it and correct undemocratic regimes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XIII - Only someone well disposed to
rule can convey such to his subjects, who in turn convey it to others.
This is a further advantage of a single rule world.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XIV - If one person can carry out a
function, then that is how it should be. The Monarch of the world
should inspire the principles of particular laws for the various municipal
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XV - From the relations between the
philosophical concepts of "being", "one" and "good" and examples,
it can be deduced that humanity, for its own good, must be ruled by
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XVI - The fact that Christ, when he
became man, predisposed the phase of peace that came about under the
perfect Monarchy of Augustus, confirms a single rule is good for mankind.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.I - The second question is reconsidered:
was the Monarchy of the Roman people legitimate? Was it possible only
through the use of arms or the laws Rome issued to the world?
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.II - A work depends on: the project,
tools and matter; any imperfection in a work of God depends on matter.
Moreover, we can only sense God's divine will from external cues.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Cap.III - The Roman people had by right
the role of world Monarch, in first place thanks to its origin, to
the nobility of its ancestor Aeneas, as proved in the classics.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.IV - The Roman Empire reached perfection
thanks to miracles, thus is was God's will that it be. Livius and
many other illustrious authors wrote about these many miracles.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.V - Several examples, both regarding
peoples and individuals, show that the Roman people put the law before
personal motives; this proves their affection for the public welfare.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VI - Nature predisposes a region
and a people to govern mankind on earth: Rome and its Roman people.
All that nature gave order to is maintained by law.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VII - The will of God is clear through
reason; in other cases it can appear in different ways, sometimes
even through signs of its own.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VIII - Many peoples and many sovereigns
tried to dominate the world; the fact that only the Romans succeeded
in this enterprise is a sign of the will of God.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.IX - The Roman people gained their
Empire thanks to a series of challenges, extreme remedies in the name
of justice; this fact confirms they ruled by right.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.X - Rational principles were first
considered; now it is faith with discussion against ecclesiastics
who plotted against the Principality and betrayed the poor, and thus
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.XI - The Scriptures relate that
Christ took on Himself the sins of the world. The conviction should
have been sanctioned by who had legitimate jurisdiction of the world,
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.I - Dante asks for Divine assistance
to explain how the authority of the Roman Monarchy descends from God.
"Only two" can be considered: the Roman Pontiff and the Roman Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.II - The answer to this question
begins with a principle: "God does not wish anything that goes against
nature". It is absurd to think that God would conflict with nature.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.III - Dante gives three categories
of man: lovers of the Church, those who betray it and "decretalists",
as faith come from the traditions of the Church, Dante only speaks
to the first.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.IV - The opinion of those who think
that temporal power comes from spiritual power, like the moon illuminated
by the sun, is rebuted; it is not so, just as the sun did not form
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.V - It is written that of the two
sons of Jacob, Levi (father of the sacerdotal order) was born before
Jude (father of the temporal order). Seniority is not a sign of authority.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VI - Saul was appointed and then
dismissed by Samuel, according to some vicars of God, that proves
that temporal power depends on spiritual power. Samuel was only a
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VII - Christ was given incence and
gold by the Magi, so as vicar He too would have temporal authority.
A vicariate does not have total authority (for example over the laws
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VIII - Peter was given the power
to tie and untie "every thing" on earth. It should be noted that "every"
refers to his function as Guardian of the Kingdom of Heaven.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.IX - According to Luke, St. Peter
said to Christ "Here are two swords". Some say that the two swords
correspond to spiritual and temporal powers. Dante argues to refute
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.X - Dante regards the gift Constantine
gave to the Pope in Rome as illegitimate. He had no right to part
with the Empire's riches, nor the Pope to betray the Church's vow
CORRADO MALASPINA, Currado - Marquis of Villafranca in Lunigiana,
d.1294, grandson of Corrado I the elder. Gave hospitality to Dante
when in exile and much esteemed by the Poet for his kindness (Purg.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XII - The Empire does not depend
on the authority of the Curch, since it is older. Moreover, Christ
himself more than once recognised the authority of Caesar.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XIII - The alleged faculty of the
Church to give authority to the Empire was conferred neither by God
nor by the Scriptures, which indeed forbid priests to attend to temporal
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XIV - The life of Christ was the
archetype and model for the Church militant. In front of Pilot, Christ
denied temporal power: "My Kingdom is not of this world".
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XV - Here the authority of the Empire
is proven not to derive from the Pope, it is emanated directly from
God. Thus the three questions posed at the beginning are all answered.