System on the complete works

Alberto Acquaro's studio

Subjects treated in the chapters of the Monarchia


MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.I - The essential task of mankind is to commit his talent to provide his fellow men with new knowledge. The benefit of the Monarchy for society is not among known themes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.II - Three questions on temporal Monarchy (or Empire): 1: is it necessary for the world's well-being? 2: Did the Roman people rule with right? 3: Does its authority come from God?
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.III - The final task of the human race is to always and fully realise all its intelectural potential, both in speculation and enactment, modifying reality.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.IV - A condition necessary for the human race to realise its intellectual potential is to live in peace and calm.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.V - Is the Monarchy necessary for the well-being of the world? An analysis of ever growing social nucei shows the opportuneness of the world governed by a single Monarch or Emperor.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VI - The order of a complex system is worth more than the order of its parts; this means that if one nation benefits from the guidance of a Monarch, then a set of nations will do so more.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VII - As the human race is made up of nations, it is part of the Universe, that obeys God, its only Monarch; this confirms that Monarchy is necessary for the world's well-being.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.VIII - God wanted man to be in His image; since one of the characteristics of God is Unity, then the human race should be subject to a single Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.IX - Mankind is the son of Heaven, whose parts are moved by a single force, the Primum Mobile; thus is it natural that the human race be governed by a single Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.X - The human race should be governed by one Prince; only under this condition can justice be assured for any controversy between men, at any level.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XI - Only one Monarch, the same for all men, can completely exercise justice; free from envy, he desires justice and has the power to impose it on all other princes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XII - Freedom, as it is God's greatest gift, must be defended. Only the Monarch of the world, who is not envious, desires to maintain it and correct undemocratic regimes.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XIII - Only someone well disposed to rule can convey such to his subjects, who in turn convey it to others. This is a further advantage of a single rule world.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XIV - If one person can carry out a function, then that is how it should be. The Monarch of the world should inspire the principles of particular laws for the various municipal areas.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Chap.XV - From the relations between the philosophical concepts of "being", "one" and "good" and examples, it can be deduced that humanity, for its own good, must be ruled by one Monarch.
MONARCHIA - Liber Primus - Cap.XVI - The fact that Christ, when he became man, predisposed the phase of peace that came about under the perfect Monarchy of Augustus, confirms a single rule is good for mankind.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.I - The second question is reconsidered: was the Monarchy of the Roman people legitimate? Was it possible only through the use of arms or the laws Rome issued to the world?
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.II - A work depends on: the project, tools and matter; any imperfection in a work of God depends on matter. Moreover, we can only sense God's divine will from external cues.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Cap.III - The Roman people had by right the role of world Monarch, in first place thanks to its origin, to the nobility of its ancestor Aeneas, as proved in the classics.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.IV - The Roman Empire reached perfection thanks to miracles, thus is was God's will that it be. Livius and many other illustrious authors wrote about these many miracles.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.V - Several examples, both regarding peoples and individuals, show that the Roman people put the law before personal motives; this proves their affection for the public welfare.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VI - Nature predisposes a region and a people to govern mankind on earth: Rome and its Roman people. All that nature gave order to is maintained by law.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VII - The will of God is clear through reason; in other cases it can appear in different ways, sometimes even through signs of its own.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.VIII - Many peoples and many sovereigns tried to dominate the world; the fact that only the Romans succeeded in this enterprise is a sign of the will of God.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.IX - The Roman people gained their Empire thanks to a series of challenges, extreme remedies in the name of justice; this fact confirms they ruled by right.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.X - Rational principles were first considered; now it is faith with discussion against ecclesiastics who plotted against the Principality and betrayed the poor, and thus Christ.
MONARCHIA - Liber Secundus - Chap.XI - The Scriptures relate that Christ took on Himself the sins of the world. The conviction should have been sanctioned by who had legitimate jurisdiction of the world, Rome.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.I - Dante asks for Divine assistance to explain how the authority of the Roman Monarchy descends from God. "Only two" can be considered: the Roman Pontiff and the Roman Prince.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.II - The answer to this question begins with a principle: "God does not wish anything that goes against nature". It is absurd to think that God would conflict with nature.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.III - Dante gives three categories of man: lovers of the Church, those who betray it and "decretalists", as faith come from the traditions of the Church, Dante only speaks to the first.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.IV - The opinion of those who think that temporal power comes from spiritual power, like the moon illuminated by the sun, is rebuted; it is not so, just as the sun did not form the moon.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.V - It is written that of the two sons of Jacob, Levi (father of the sacerdotal order) was born before Jude (father of the temporal order). Seniority is not a sign of authority.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VI - Saul was appointed and then dismissed by Samuel, according to some vicars of God, that proves that temporal power depends on spiritual power. Samuel was only a nuncio.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VII - Christ was given incence and gold by the Magi, so as vicar He too would have temporal authority. A vicariate does not have total authority (for example over the laws of nature).
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.VIII - Peter was given the power to tie and untie "every thing" on earth. It should be noted that "every" refers to his function as Guardian of the Kingdom of Heaven.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.IX - According to Luke, St. Peter said to Christ "Here are two swords". Some say that the two swords correspond to spiritual and temporal powers. Dante argues to refute this idea.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.X - Dante regards the gift Constantine gave to the Pope in Rome as illegitimate. He had no right to part with the Empire's riches, nor the Pope to betray the Church's vow of poverty.
CORRADO MALASPINA, Currado - Marquis of Villafranca in Lunigiana, d.1294, grandson of Corrado I the elder. Gave hospitality to Dante when in exile and much esteemed by the Poet for his kindness (Purg. VIII, 118).
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XII - The Empire does not depend on the authority of the Curch, since it is older. Moreover, Christ himself more than once recognised the authority of Caesar.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XIII - The alleged faculty of the Church to give authority to the Empire was conferred neither by God nor by the Scriptures, which indeed forbid priests to attend to temporal goods.
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XIV - The life of Christ was the archetype and model for the Church militant. In front of Pilot, Christ denied temporal power: "My Kingdom is not of this world".
MONARCHIA - Liber Tertius - Chap.XV - Here the authority of the Empire is proven not to derive from the Pope, it is emanated directly from God. Thus the three questions posed at the beginning are all answered.

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